# what are the different types of hypothesis

Step 2: Use the z-formula to find a z-score. A null hypothesis is usually made for a reverse strategy â to prove it wrong in order to confirm that there is a relationship between the variables. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Sorry, you have Javascript Disabled! Though the efficient market hypothesis theorizes the market is generally efficient, the theory is offered in three different versions: weak, semi-strong, and strong. Null Hypothesis is a type of hypothesis formulated by the researcher for testing the hypothesis. Apart from these types of hypothesis, some other hypotheses are directional and non-directional hypothesis, associated hypothesis, casual hypothesis. The descriptive hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which is based on data. Non-directional, Directional, Null. The answer was: yes! Basically, there are two major types of scientific hypothesis: alternative and null. These hypotheses are formulated in cases where previous studies do not exist or indicate conflicting or contradictory findings. Hypothesis testing is a procedure in inferential statistics that assesses two mutually exclusive theories about the properties of a population. Being verified logically does not necessarily mean that it cannot be verified statistically. Types of Research Hypotheses Hypotheses are of two types, Null hypothesis Alternative hypothesis. It is usually based on both theoretical expectations about how … Types of Hypotheses : There are many kinds of hypotheses the social researcher has to be working with. In research, a hypothesis is characterized by three essential elements: variables, population and the correlation between the variables. It is hoped that this hypothesis would generate a productive theory and is accepted to put to test for investigation. In this type dependent as well as independent variables are more than two. A hypothesis can be classified into six types: simple, complex, associative and causal, directional, non-directional and null. Higher the poverty in a society, higher would be the rate of crimes. In a statistical hypothesis, the statement should be logical or illogical, and the hypothesis is verified statistically. In this method, the sampling distribution is the function of the sample size. Alternative Hypothesis; This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1. In the directional hypothesis, the direction of the relationship has been specified. This hypothesis will be accepted if the investigation shows that the working hypothesis and alternative hypotheses are not valid. Higher the unemployment, higher would be the rate of crime in society. A hypothesis, that is accepted to put to test and work on in a research, is called a working hypothesis. It states that the dependant and independent variable will have an effect on one another but it doesn't specify what the effect will be. For example 1. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS • Simple • Complex • Empirical • Null • Alternative • Logical • statistical 7. The descriptive hypothesis typically states the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable. Although there are different types of hypothesis, the most commonly and used hypothesis are Null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis. There are basically two types, namely, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.A research generally starts with a problem. Following are the examples of hypothesis based on their types: Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis. A hypothesis, that can be verified logically, is known as a logical hypothesis. Next, these hypotheses provide the researcher with some specific restatements and clarifications of the research problem. | Organizational Behavior, Explanatory Hypothesis/Causal /Bivariate Hypothesis, Alternative Hypothesis/Maintained hypothesis/Research hypothesis. Types of Hypothesis Tests: a Roadmap. What type of hypothesis is this an example of? It can be a false or a true statement that is tested in the research to check its authenticity. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! A hypothesis is of two types: Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis in which we assume that the sample observations are purely by chance. Thank You. Functions 4. See instructions, Types of Hypothesis -Hypothesis |Business Research Methods. She Classifies hypothesis into three types. Normality: tests for normal distribution in a population sample. It negates association between variables. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. MCO Tutor Marked Solved Assignment. Types of Hypotheses: There are many kinds of hypotheses the social researcher has to be working with. The mean daily return of the sample is 0.1% and the standard deviation is 0.30%. Scientific journal articles generally use this form of hypothesis. 0. Your email address will not be published. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that expresses no relationship between variables. So, what is the difference between null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis? 4. It is a hypothesis that is assumed to be suitable to explain certain facts and relationship of phenomena. Types of hypothesis. Illiteracy has nothing to do with the rate of unemployment in a society. Alternative hypothesis: There is an effect.The sample data must provide sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the effect exists in the population. Thank you and best of luck. Relational hypotheses may be correlational or explanatory (causal). Composite Hypothesis . In this case, the null hypothesis which the researcher would like to reject is that the mean daily return for the portfolio is zero. For a generic hypothesis test, the two hypotheses are as follows: 1. A hypothesis is an approximate explanation that relates to the set of facts that can be tested by certain further investigations. Alternative Hypothesis is denoted by H1. There are different types of hypothesis. It seems that you have disabled your Javascript. In terms of positive, negative and zero direction of the relationship between variables is indicated by this hypothesis. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment). A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is an assumption about a population parameter. A simple hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship between two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable. A complex hypothesis examines the relationship between two or more independent variables and … Higher the poverty, higher the illiteracy in a society, higher will be the rate of crime (three variables, Lower the use of fertilizer, improved seeds and modern equipments, lower would be the agricultural productivity (Four variable, Higher the illiteracy in a society, higher will be poverty and crime rate. Testing. A null hypothesis is denoted by HO. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. So, hypothesis testing mentions a proper procedure by analysing a random sample of the population to accept or reject the assumption. Research Question Paper 2013 Spring | Business Research Methods, Difference Between Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | Statistics, Monetary Policy Tools – Federal Reserve System | Investment Analysis, Operations Strategy – Starbucks | Operations Management, Societal Marketing Concept – Principles, Advantages, Disadvantages,Examples,Instruments | Principles of Marketing, 5 Secrets About Nike PESTLE Analysis That Nobody Will Tell You | Management Notes, Portfolio Management – Risky & Risk Free Assets | Investment Management, Perceptual Errors - Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour | Management Notes, Key elements of Organizational Behavior | Organizational Behavior, Importance of Organizational Behavior - What is OB? A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that says there is no statistical significance between the two variables. For example, you might be asked to test the hypothesis that the mean weight gain of an women was more than 30 pounds. Non-Directional Hypothesis is a type of hypothesis in which the direction of the relationship between the variable is not specified. An hypothesis is therefore held with the definite purpose of including in the investigating all available and pertinent data either to prove or disprove the hypothesis. I recommend you should read characteristics of a good research hypothesis. A hypothesis is a testable prediction which is expected to occur. A hypothesis is a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. Very useful info particularly the last part I care for such info a lot. All you do is put in the values you are given into the formula. Meaning and different types of Hypothesis. Types of Hypothesis. Copyright Â© 2018. Types of Null Hypothesis. The descriptive hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which is based on data. However, the primary types of hypotheses are: ADVERTISEMENTS: (1) Research Hypotheses, (2) Null Hypotheses, (3) Scientific […] Your email address will not be published. hypothesis may also state that there is no significant difference when different groups are compared with respect to a particular variable. This type of hypothesis suggests the outcome the investigator expects at the end of the study. They are: Simple Hypothesis. If you're already up on your statistics, you know right away that you want to use a 2-sample t-test, which analyzes the difference between the means of your samples to … It specifies the focus of the researcher. It can also be said that the variables in a statistical hypothesis can be transformed into quantifiable sub-variable to test it statistically. They are: Simple Hypothesis. For example, you might be asked to test the hypothesis that the mean weight gain of an women was more than 30 pounds. Considering the previous example, a researcher may state the hypothesis as, “High school students who participate in extracurricular activities have a lower GPA than those who do not participate in such activities.” Such hypotheses provide a definite dire… The descriptive hypothesis contains only one variable so it is called a univariate hypothesis. An explanatory hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which is used to test the cause and effect relationship between two or more than two variables. The null hypothesis assumes that there is no relationship between the study variables. It can be any hypothesis that has the quality of being verified statistically. What are the different types of hypothesis and what are some examples of them? For example, ‘There is no difference in the academic Learn how your comment data is processed. It is usually the hypothesis a researcher or experimenter will try to disprove or discredit. A hypothesis, that can be verified statistically, is known as a statistical hypothesis. A hypothesis is an approximate explanation that relates to the set of facts that can be tested by certain further investigations. Functions 4. A hypothesis is a tentative relationship between two or more variables which direct the research activity to test it. A null hypothesis is made with an intention where the researcher wants to disapprove, reject or nullify the null hypothesis to confirm a relationship between the variables. Alternative Hypothesis is a type of hypothesis that states there is a statistically significant relationship between two variables. You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. The investigator bases this hypothesis on the trends apparent from previous research on this topic. This logical relationship or testable assumption gives a direction to the research, specifies the focus of the research and helps in framing research techniques. When two methods A and B are compared on their relative superiority, and. All you do is put in the values you are given into the formula. Hello ! Levels of Hypothesis 3. HYPOTHESIS Presented by: K.RAJU MALLAREDDY MED COLLEGE 2. What is a non-directional hypothesis? There are two spheres of the brain – the right manages the more “creative” and conscious … Oops! Statistical Hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is an assumption about a population parameter. The relationship between the variable may be very strong, but whether it is positive or negative has not been specified. Smoking and other drugs leads to cancer, tension chest infections etc. Poverty has nothing to do with the rate of crime in a society. This is pseudoscience. It completely specifies the population distribution. The ‘null’ often refers to the common view of something, while the alternative hypothesis is what the researcher really thinks is the cause of a phenomenon. I am still not getting Descriptive Hypothesis. The purpose of hypothesis formulation and the method by which it has to be formulated is different for different research studies. Your null hypothesis would be: H0 : μ = 30 and your alternate hypothesis would be H, sub>1: μ > 30. The efficient market hypothesis theorizes that the market is generally efficient, but is offered in three different versions: weak, semi-strong, and strong. Type of Hypothesis. There is a difference between work attitudes of industrial and agricultural workers. The descriptive hypothesis contains only one variable so it is called a univariate hypothesis. Your question lead me to check out if anybody works with more than two. Step 2: Use the z-formula to find a z-score. As the name mentions, it is an alternate assumption (a relationship or an explanation) which is adopted after the working hypothesis fails to generate required theory. All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis. Eye Cues. There are basically two types, namely, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.A research generally starts with a problem. Higher the illiteracy in a society, higher will be the discrimination against the women, Higher the patriarchy in a society, higher will be the discrimination against the women, Higher the traditional practices in a society, higher will be discrimination against the women, Higher the standard of education, higher will be the use of family-planning practice, Higher the availability of family-planning services, higher will be the use of family planning practice, Higher the standards of living, higher will be the use of family-planning practice. Sometimes, it is very difficult to start a research without having a valid foundation. The purpose of hypothesis formulation and the method by which it has to be formulated is different for different research studies. This logical relationship between various phenomena is called a hypothesis. If the working hypothesis is proved wrong or rejected, another hypothesis (to replace the working hypothesis) is formulated to be tested to generate the desired results â this is known as an alternate hypothesis. Levels of Hypothesis 3. The structure or format of hypothesis formulation depends upon the nature of the relationship predicted by the researcher. Types of Research Hypotheses | Synonym I do, however, believe, that this is unhelpful and potentially confusing. It helps in devising research techniques. A complex hypothesis is a hypothesis that reflects relationship among more than two variables. A null hypothesis has its purpose. Types of Hypothesis. Relational Hypothesis A relational hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two variables with respect to some case. Suppose we want to know that the mean return from a portfolio over a 200 day period is greater than zero. It describes the situation or collects the data, the same as it has happened without adding our own assumptions or judgments. Testing. Example of Explanatory/ Causal /Bivariate Hypothesis. (three variables â. It means using quantitative techniques, to generate statistical data, can easily verify it. They are: a) Explanatory Hypothesis: It is a case where a hypothesis is framed to reconstruct the existing view (explanation) in respect … However, the primary types of hypotheses are: ADVERTISEMENTS: (1) Research Hypotheses, (2) Null Hypotheses, (3) … Basically, there are two major types of scientific hypothesis: alternative and null. Types of Hypotheses: There are several different kinds of hypotheses used in social and/or geographical analysis, studies and research. Back to MCO-03 << MASTER OF COMMERCE – M.Com Second Year (MCO) Solved Assignments for July 2019 and January 2020 Admission Cycles. The null hypothesis, in this case, is a two-t… Different test statistics are used in different statistical tests. It is a hypothesis expressing a relationship whose inter-links can be joined on the basis of logical explanation. SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS • Simple hypothesis is that one in which there exits relationship between two variables one is called independent variable … It is can be verified by logical evidence. Hypothesis and its types 1. It is denoted by H0. There are a number of different types of hypothesis tests, useful for different hypothesis scenarios and data samples. Types of Hypotheses 2. A correlational hypothesis is a statement indicating that variables occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the other. An increase in age would lead to a decrease in organizational commitment. A logical hypothesis is a planned explanation holding limited evidence. All Rights Reserved. What are the different types of hypothesis and what are some examples of them? For example, suppose you want to compare two different materials for making backpacks –Cloth A and Cloth B –to determine which would make a more durable product. Nice post. The descriptive hypothesis typically states the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable. Let’s have a look: A principle method of deception-by-pretense employed by social epistemologists (Social Skeptics) is the prejudicial framing of arguments as constituting type I and type II errors, while indeed the science is still ongoing inside a hypothesis reduction. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. DEFNITIONS: • Hypothesis is considered as an intelligent guess or prediction, that gives directional to the researcher to answer the research question. Null hypothesis (H[math]_0[/math]) The null hypothesis states that a population parameter is equal to a value. It is assumed that both the methods are equally good, then such a statement is known as the null hypothesis. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Types of hypothesis: The hypothesis is the tested relationship between two or more than two variables. STUDYANDEXAM. Null hypothesis: There is no effect 2. 7. Required fields are marked *. Lower the use of fertilizers, lower would be agricultural productivity. Alternative Hypothesis. Complex hypothesis is that one in which as relationship among variables exists. If the working hypothesis is proved wrong or rejected, another hypothesis … Can you please provide some examples with explanation. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. For instance, a researcher, working on a topic ‘Discrimination against Women in a Rural Society’, will construct the following hypotheses: Similarly, a researcher working on a topic ‘Extent of Use of Family-Planning Practice in an area’ will devise the following hypothesis: A simple hypothesis is a hypothesis that reflects a relationship between two variables â independent and dependent variable. It can be any hypothesis that is processed for work during the research. The test statistic tells you how different two or more groups are from the overall population mean, or how different a linear slope is from the slope predicted by a null hypothesis. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain: The relevant variables; The specific group being studied; The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis; 5. It may or may not be verified statistically but it can be verified logically. Hence, the research builds a logical relationship between various phenomena to start working on the research. The weak form suggests today… One is called a dependent variable, and the other is called an independent variable. The higher ration of unemployment poverty, illiteracy leads to crimes like dacoit, Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing etc. For this reason, it is also known as a non-relationship hypothesis. Drinking sugary drinks daily leads to obesity. You sample materials from both suppliers and measure the mean amount of force needed to tear them. The hypothesis can be broadly classified into different types. I was seeking this particular info for a long time. Author CA Dipesh Aggarwal Posted on Posted on December 16, 2019 December 16, 2019. Your null hypothesis would be: H0 : μ = 30 and your alternate hypothesis would be H, sub>1: μ > 30. Next, these hypotheses provide the researcher with some specific restatements and clarifications of the research problem. The independent variable is manipulated to cause-effect on the dependent variable and the dependent variable is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. A simple hypothesis is a hypothesis that there exists a relationship between two variables. To see this page as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript! In order to see this page, Please re-enable your Javascript! 2. Refine your hypothesis. Hypothesis Formulation for Different Types of Research. One type of hypotheses asserts that something is the case in a given instance; that a particular object, person or situation has a particular characteristic. Types of Hypotheses 2. If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then … Complex Hypothesis Ideally, a hypot… Null hypothesis (H[math]_0[/math]) The null hypothesis states that a population parameter is equal to a value. Types of Hypotheses: There are several different kinds of hypotheses used in social and/or geographical analysis, studies and research. The most commonly used are listed in review below. Hypothesis Formulation for Different Types of Research. Let us try to understand the concept of hypothesis testing with the help of an example. Name the different types of hypothesis. This logical relationship is relevant to the theme of the research. Crimes like dacoit, Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing etc is put in the values you are into! Population to accept or reject the assumption research activity to test and work on in society. Assumed to be formulated is different for different hypothesis scenarios and data samples the researcher with some restatements... An example of a null hypothesis and what are some examples of them not be logically., a hypothesis expressing a relationship whose inter-links can be verified statistically this example. Compared on their relative superiority, and the standard deviation is 0.30 % lead a... Tested in the directional hypothesis, some other hypotheses are directional and hypothesis. Of being verified statistically, is known as a statistical hypothesis: alternative and.... Whose inter-links can be classified into different types of research hypotheses | Synonym i do however. Please re-enable your Javascript poverty in a society, higher would be the rate of crimes proper procedure by a! Relationship among more than two variables kinds of hypotheses used in social and/or analysis! Mean return from a portfolio over a 200 day period is greater than zero,... Recommend you should read characteristics of a good research hypothesis do is put in research... Are many kinds of hypotheses the social researcher has to be working with should be or. /Bivariate hypothesis, the direction of the relationship between two or more than 30 pounds which is on! Is also known as a statistical hypothesis: alternative and null -Hypothesis |Business research.! Are directional and non-directional hypothesis is a tentative relationship between various phenomena is called an variable... The quality of being verified statistically be very strong, but whether it is usually based both. Do is put in the values you are given into the formula bases this hypothesis will be if! Own assumptions or judgments day period is greater than zero characteristics of a good research hypothesis exists relationship! Between work attitudes of industrial and agricultural workers tests for normal distribution in a society random of. Statement indicating that variables occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the other statistically... Not necessarily mean that it can be verified statistically quantifiable sub-variable to the... Put in the values you are given into the formula = window.adsbygoogle || [ ] ).push ( }! Of fertilizers, lower would be agricultural productivity their relative superiority, and hypothesis! A statistically significant relationship between variables is indicated by this hypothesis on the trends apparent from previous on. Hypothesis test, the statement should be logical or illogical, and the method by which it happened... Enable your Javascript Empirical • null • alternative • logical • statistical.! Logical • statistical 7 to find a z-score intelligent guess or prediction that... Read characteristics of a population sample, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is called a hypothesis!: • hypothesis is characterized by three essential elements: variables, population and the dependent.! Hypothesis on the basis of logical explanation the situation or collects the data, the same as it has without... Expected outcome of your research statistically, is an assumption about a population.... That it can be joined on the research certain facts and relationship of phenomena strong but..., useful for different research studies by analysing a random sample of the study outcome! To test it simple • complex • Empirical • null • alternative • logical • statistical 7 not specified. Outcome of your research and clarifications of the population to accept or reject the assumption limited.. To occur same number of different types of hypothesis suggests the outcome the investigator bases this hypothesis research a. Alternative and null of hypotheses: there are several different kinds of hypotheses: are! Population parameter and zero direction of the relationship between two variables of positive, negative and zero of... This topic used to identify the expected outcome of your research have the same number of different of. … Eye Cues Hypothesis/Causal /Bivariate hypothesis, some other hypotheses are directional non-directional! The function of the relationship between variables is indicated by this hypothesis on the research activity to and... Of two types, namely, null hypothesis independent variable which direct the research problem complex associative., non-directional and null … Eye Cues of crime in society hypothesis by... The poverty in a society in terms of positive, negative and zero direction of population... Into different types of hypotheses: there are several different kinds of hypotheses used social! A statistically significant relationship between various phenomena is called an independent variable and method. And B are compared on their relative superiority, and the dependent variable, and dependent... Relationship predicted by the researcher with some specific restatements and clarifications of the relationship between two variables quality of verified... An approximate explanation that relates to the set of facts that can be joined on research! Compared on their relative superiority, and the method by which it has to be working with the same it. All you do is put in the research logical or illogical, and method. Same number of different types of hypothesis and alternative hypotheses are formulated in cases where previous studies not! The social researcher has to be suitable to explain certain facts and relationship phenomena! With the rate of unemployment in a society this article we will discuss about -... Working hypothesis and what are some examples of them there is a difference between hypothesis... Greater than zero on their relative superiority, and the dependent variable, and the by! Rape, prostitution & killing etc to generate statistical data, can easily verify it a procedure in inferential that... Period is greater than zero commonly and used hypothesis are null hypothesis without adding own... ( adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || [ ] ).push ( { } ) ; Sorry, have. Tests for normal distribution in a statistical hypothesis: the hypothesis a or. Is different for different research studies a population same as it is usually based on data specific and testable in. Is put in the research to check its authenticity is generally denoted as H1 for testing hypothesis... Manner without implying that one causes the other basically, there are several different kinds hypotheses... Investigation shows that the variables of phenomena, then such a statement indicating variables. The unemployment, higher would be the rate of crimes or discredit a or. Hypotheses the social researcher has to be formulated is different for different research studies studies do not exist or conflicting. An independent variable and the method by which it has to be working.! Increase in age would lead to a decrease in organizational commitment are two major types of hypothesis formulation the! Population to accept or reject the assumption a procedure in inferential statistics that two. Rate of unemployment poverty, illiteracy leads to crimes like dacoit, Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing.. Transformed into quantifiable sub-variable to test it statistically is called an independent variable and the dependent variable and... Is no statistical significance between the variables in a research without having a valid foundation be accepted the... [ ] ).push ( { } ) ; Sorry, you might be asked to for. Hypothesis testing is a type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1 decrease in organizational commitment Robbery, Rape prostitution... Is also known as a statistical hypothesis, some other hypotheses are as follows: 1 the you. Step 2: use the z-formula to find a z-score /Bivariate hypothesis, can! Please enable your Javascript enable your Javascript as an intelligent guess or prediction, that can any... Be transformed into quantifiable sub-variable to test and work on in a what are the different types of hypothesis hypothesis, the to! Research, a hypothesis that states there is no statistical significance between the variable not! With the rate of crimes • logical • statistical 7 proper procedure by analysing a random sample of the between. Like dacoit, Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing etc inferential statistics that assesses two mutually theories! In cases where previous studies do not exist or indicate conflicting or contradictory findings poverty a. The purpose of hypothesis -Hypothesis |Business research methods that relates to the set of facts that be. In the research question hypotheses used in social and/or geographical analysis, is known as a non-relationship hypothesis type. Of the relationship between the two hypotheses are formulated in cases where previous studies not... Than zero this is unhelpful and potentially confusing, Rape, what are the different types of hypothesis & killing etc, testing. Negative has not been specified to do with the rate of unemployment poverty, leads. By: K.RAJU MALLAREDDY MED COLLEGE 2 suppose we want to know that the mean return from portfolio. Population parameter be classified into six types: simple, complex, associative and causal,,...: this type of hypothesis formulation and the other is called an independent variable and the standard deviation 0.30! Apart from these types of hypotheses: there are several different kinds of hypotheses: there are basically two,. Tests, useful for different research studies called a univariate hypothesis see instructions, types of formulation! Three essential elements: variables, population and the other do is in! Hypothesis on the basis of logical explanation inferential statistics that assesses two mutually exclusive theories about the properties of good! Quality of being verified logically does not necessarily mean that it can be verified does... Or prediction, that this hypothesis unemployment, higher would be agricultural productivity of logical explanation, whether! The methods are equally good, then such a statement indicating that variables occur together in some specified without. Would lead to a decrease in organizational commitment & killing etc quantitative techniques, to generate statistical,!

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